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Applications of Biosensor-based Analysis: A Review and The Synthesis of Biphenyl Modified Deoxyguanine as a New Class of Aptasensors

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Title: Applications of Biosensor-based Analysis: A Review and The Synthesis of Biphenyl Modified Deoxyguanine as a New Class of Aptasensors
Author: Olaoye, Olasunkanmi
Department: Department of Chemistry
Abstract: The broad concept of biosensors is very simple, yet their design and application today employs a great deal of sophistication. They basically have a biological recognition component within them and are responsible for the sensing, detection, or/and quantification of target samples. Their biological recognition component are mainly enzymes, nucleic acids, cells, or some naturally occurring biological product. The design of biosensors has also incorporated artificial biological recognition components e.g. aptamers, modified molecules, and polymers. Their mode of detection may be for single molecular targets or a diverse range of molecular target groups, a concept which has seen extensive applications in life sciences. Their applications also extend to medicine and pharmaceuticals, food processing and safety, and environmental screening. Aptasensors are a rapidly growing aspect of biosensors, and their applications is almost as wide as the entire biosensor scope itself. The understanding that nucleic acids can assume stable secondary structures, and that they can easily be synthesized and functionalized to afford structures beyond natural evolution, has opened the door for aptamers as a biological recognition agent in several biosensing applications. Aptasensors as a class of biosensors use aptamers which are highly selective recognition nucleic acid agents. Aptasensors can be incorporated on very sophisticated designs, such as in micro and nano scale platforms, which allows for their integration in miniaturized devices. Their detection is also very rapid, specific and sensitive, and can offer reduced costs, high throughput, and a minimized material consumption. Aptasensors has also rapidly evolved, and is now widely used in environmental monitoring, pharmaceuticals, medicine, agriculture, and food safety. This research paper reviews the extensive field of biosensor designs, and their applications in several life disciplines. It also reviews the emerging areas of aptasensor development, as having massive potential in becoming the future of biosensor applications. Finally, the design of a new, fluorescent aptasensor detection based on modified nucleic acid aptamers is presented, and the optical properties of this analogue is discussed with regard to its potential as a recognition and detection component in an aptasensor design.
Date: 2015-10-09
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada