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Current use organohalogen contaminant distributions in seawater and trophodynamics in marine and terrestrial food chains of the Canadian Arctic

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dc.contributor.advisor Solomon, Keith
dc.contributor.author Morris, Adam David
dc.date.accessioned 2015-09-10T18:34:49Z
dc.date.available 2016-08-05T05:00:30Z
dc.date.copyright 2015-08
dc.date.created 2015-08-05
dc.date.issued 2014-08
dc.identifier.citation Morris AD, Muir, D.C.G., Solomon, K.R., Teixeira, C., Duric, M., Wang, X. 2014. Trophodynamics of current use pesticides and ecological relationships in the Bathurst Region vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain of the Canadian Arctic. Environ Toxicol Chem 33:1956-1966. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10214/9221
dc.description This is a PhD thesis studying a broad range of contaminants in Canadian Arctic ecosystems and food chains. en_US
dc.description.abstract This thesis investigated the concentrations and bioaccumulation of current use organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in the Canadian Arctic. Current use pesticides (CUPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) were measured in seawater, and their bioaccumulation processes in polar bear (Ursus maritimus)-ringed seal (Pusa hispida) food chains in three locations across Nunavut (Canada) were assessed. Their bioaccumulation was also evaluated throughout the Arctic wolf (Canis lupus) food chain in the Bathurst Region of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Concentrations of OHCs in the terrestrial and marine organisms were relatively similar (low to sub ng g-1 lipid weight). Volumetric bioconcentration factors (BCFv) and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) indicated effective uptake of the CUPs, PBDEs and some alternative HFRs by terrestrial and marine organisms. Biomagnification of some octaBDEs, the nona–decaBDEs and total PBDEs (PBDE) was evident in wolves and caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus), and these compounds (with BDE28/33 and the HFR) underwent a small degree of trophic magnification in that food chain [trophic magnification factors (TMFs) = 1.3–2.1]. The CUPs had very limited biomagnification, and along with the alternative HFRs, all underwent trophic dilution (decreasing concentrations with increasing trophic level) through the terrestrial food chain. In seawater, CUPs, PBDEs and select alternative HFRs were detected at low pg L-1 concentrations. In the marine food chains, there was differential biomagnification of chlorothalonil, -endosulfan and -endosulfan in polar bears (BMFs >1 in some locations). All other significant BMFs for CUPs across the three locations were in lower TL interactions (e.g., plankton:algae). Only two PBDEs (BDE17 and BDE154) exhibited any biomagnification in ringed seals, at Barrow and Rae Straits alone. At Cumberland Sound, all significant biomagnification occurred in capelin (Mallotus villosus), a transient fish (>1000 km range) that ranges into temperate zones. The TMFs of the OHCs indicated near-universal trophic dilution through the ringed seal food chains; only endosulfan sulfate magnified, and only through the poikilothermic portion of the marine food web. It is unlikely that the OHCs investigated here will undergo large-scale biomagnification through these food chains, most likely due to effective metabolic transformation and environmental degradation of the contaminants. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship The Molson Foundation, The Northern Contaminants Program, Aboriginal and Northern Development Canada, Environment Canada (RAP Program) en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Chapter 2 was published in Environmental Toxicololgy and Chemistry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc) en_US
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/ca/ *
dc.subject Canada en_US
dc.subject Organohalogen contaminants en_US
dc.subject Bioaccumulation en_US
dc.subject Biomagnification en_US
dc.subject Arctic en_US
dc.subject Marine en_US
dc.subject Terrestrial en_US
dc.subject Food chain en_US
dc.subject Trophic dilution en_US
dc.subject Trophic magnification en_US
dc.subject Stable isotopes en_US
dc.subject dietary tracers en_US
dc.subject ecological relationships en_US
dc.subject ecology en_US
dc.title Current use organohalogen contaminant distributions in seawater and trophodynamics in marine and terrestrial food chains of the Canadian Arctic en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.degree.programme Toxicology en_US
dc.degree.name Doctor of Philosophy en_US
dc.degree.department School of Environmental Sciences en_US
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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada