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The individual and combined effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and low-dose aspirin on platelet function in healthy dogs

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Title: The individual and combined effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and low-dose aspirin on platelet function in healthy dogs
Author: Westgarth, Shannon
Department: Department of Clinical Studies
Program: Clinical Studies
Advisor: Blois, Shauna
Abstract: Dogs with a number of disease processes are at risk for thromboembolic events as a result of their underlying condition. In humans, the use of fish oils containing the long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been advocated for those at risk of thromboembolic disease processes due to the reduced number of deaths from coronary heart disease associated with their use. This prospective study evaluated the use of n-3 PUFA supplementation (DHA and EPA) in 5 healthy dogs to determine the time until steady state concentrations of EPA and DHA in whole blood components (platelet-rich plasma [PRP], platelet-poor plasma [PPP], and red blood cells [RBC]). Steady state concentrations of EPA and DHA were reached by two weeks in PPP and PRP but took slightly longer for RBC (4 weeks for EPA, 6 weeks for DHA). Next, the effects of n-3 PUFA (DHA and EPA) supplementation alone, aspirin alone, and combination therapy on hemostatic function were evaluated in 16 healthy dogs. Hemostatic testing included Multiplate whole blood aggregometry (using agonists ADP, arachidonic acid [AA], and collagen [COL]), the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (using agonists ADP/collagen [PFA-CADP], epinephrine/collagen [PFA-CEPI]), and Thrombelastography (TEG). n-3 PUFA alone did not cause a significant change in any platelet function tests. Low-dose aspirin alone decreased platelet function as measured by PFA-CEPI and whole blood aggregometry (AA and collagen) following one week of therapy. Low-dose aspirin plus n-3 PUFA decreased platelet function significantly more versus low-dose aspirin alone when measured by whole blood aggregometry (ADP and collagen). 25% of dogs in the study were considered resistant to the anti-platelet effects of aspirin. None of the therapies affected TEG results. Finally, the study evaluated the effects of n-3 PUFA alone and in combination with aspirin on platelet activation markers (P-selectin expression and platelet-leukocyte aggregation formation) on both unactivated and thrombin-activated and samples. There was no significant difference between median fluorescence intensity or percent positivity for both markers when comparing baseline, n-3 PUFA alone or n-3 PUFA and aspirin in P-selectin expression or platelet-leukocyte aggregates in either the activated or nonactivated samples.
Date: 2015-08
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