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Assessing Wild Lupine (Lupinus perennis L.) Habitat in Ontario, Canada, for the Feasibility of Reintroduction of the Karner Blue Butterfly (Lycaeides samuelis Nabokov)

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Title: Assessing Wild Lupine (Lupinus perennis L.) Habitat in Ontario, Canada, for the Feasibility of Reintroduction of the Karner Blue Butterfly (Lycaeides samuelis Nabokov)
Author: Jarvis, Jesse Ray
Department: School of Environmental Sciences
Program: Environmental Sciences
Advisor: Otis, GardCaruso, Christina
Abstract: Degradation of wild lupine (Lupinus perennis L.) habitat led to the extirpation of the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides samuelis Nabokov) from Ontario, Canada. Lupine habitats in Ontario were evaluated in 2013 during the two estimated flight periods of the Karner blue for their suitability of reintroduction. Specific habitat characteristics were quantified and compared to literature values for these characteristics at extant Karner blue sites in Michigan and New York, USA. While lupine densities, nectar source densities for the first and second broods, shade heterogeneity, ant richness, and climate at some Ontario sites are comparable to Karner blue sites in the USA, the largest individual lupine population in Ontario just exceeds 19,000 stems, far less than the number required in multiple lupine subpopulations to sustain a minimum viable Karner blue population. Extensive lupine planting at and around existing sites is necessary prior to attempting reintroduction of the Karner blue.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10214/8645
Date: 2014-12


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