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Physicochemical Transformations in Low-Moisture Dough During Baking

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Title: Physicochemical Transformations in Low-Moisture Dough During Baking
Author: Walker, Shane Bruce
Department: Department of Food Science
Program: Food Science
Advisor: Seetharaman, Koushik
Abstract: Transformations in the properties of low-moisture dough products (cookies and crackers) during baking have been studied under idealized conditions in pilot facilities and laboratories. However, little research is published that describes dough development within the context of complex industrial baking processes. A process mapping approach was adopted, in which oven parameters were profiled and matched against changes in dough. In cookies, changes to starch A-granules, including loss of granule birefringence, disruption to granule borders and increased gel viscosity were observed. Development of acrylamide in cookies was seen to trail colour development, suggesting options for mediating acrylamide content. In crackers, the presence of additional water allowed significant changes to starch A-granules to occur, including: swelling similar to the early stages of gelatinization in bread, reduced pasting ability, a drop in enthalpy, and a loss of crystallinity. Emulation of low-moisture dough baking at the benchtop level, based upon internal product temperature data from industrial processes, was found to be limited in its ability to produce crackers having appropriate leavening and internal structure development. The determination of isosteric heat of desorption values for cookies and crackers, modeled on industrial processes at temperatures > 100°C, gave values of 44.3 and 42.7 kJ/mol, respectively. This data will be useful for establishing energy requirements in industrial baking processes
Date: 2013-04
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