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Environmental Fate and Toxicity of Three Brominated Flame Retardants in Aquatic Mesocosms

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dc.contributor.advisor Solomon, Keith
dc.contributor.advisor Muir, Derek de Jourdan, Benjamin Hanson, Mark Muir, Derek Sibley, Paul Solomon, Keith 2012-09-10T20:45:58Z 2013-08-14T05:00:16Z 2012-09 2012-08-14 2012-09-10
dc.description.abstract Tradtional brominated flame retardants (BFRs), namely the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties that have resulted in the phase out of their production and their be banned in certain jurisdictions. To meet regulatory flame retardancy requirements, non-PBDE BFRs have entered the marketplace. Much remains unknown regarding the environmental fate and toxicity of these emerging BFRs. The objective of this thesis was to use outdoor mesocosms to examine the fate and toxicity of three emerging BFRs; bis(tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), tetrabromobisphenol A bis(dibromopropyl ether) (TBBPA-DBPE), and BZ-54, which consists of two BFRs, ethylhexyl-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTeBB) and bis(ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP). While it was difficult to accurately determine degradation rates because of fluctuating concentrations, the estimated half-lives indicated these compounds are persistent (> 60 days in sediments). The partitioning of the compounds between the particulates and the sediment resulted in differential degradation rates (greater in the particulates), and products formed; those formed on the particulates were consistent with photodegradation products. The effects of these emerging BFRs on Hyalella azteca and the benthic macroinvertebrate community were assessed through the use of in situ exposure and sampling techniques. The in situ Hyalella cages showed a high degree of variability for most endpoints, regardless of their placement (e.g., water column vs. sediment) in the mesocosm. BTBPE accumulated in the H. azteca (0.03 – 1.4 ng/g ww), however this was not associated with any changes in growth or reproduction. There was high variability in abundance and diversity between the mesocosms, which limited the ability to detect statistically significant differences. Interestingly, the BZ-54 treated mesocosms had the greatest abundance, and the least amount of community diversity. This thesis examined the bioaccumulation potential of these compounds in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), as well as the associated effects on growth and development as measured through physical and biochemical endpoints. There was considerable uptake and persistence of BTBPE and TBBPA-DBPE, as well as indication of metabolism of these compounds, but limited physical effects observed. There were indications of increased oxidative stress in the BZ-54 treatment, and increased induction of vitellogenin in fathead minnow from the BTBPE treatment. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Environment Canada's Chemicals Management Plan en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights.uri *
dc.subject Brominated flame retardants en_US
dc.subject mesocosms en_US
dc.subject BTBPE en_US
dc.subject TBBPA-DBPE en_US
dc.subject BEHTBP en_US
dc.subject EHTeBB en_US
dc.title Environmental Fate and Toxicity of Three Brominated Flame Retardants in Aquatic Mesocosms en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US Environmental Biology en_US Doctor of Philosophy en_US Department of Environmental Biology en_US
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