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Fractal Imaging Theory and Applications beyond Compression

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Title: Fractal Imaging Theory and Applications beyond Compression
Author: Demers, Matthew
Department: Department of Mathematics and Statistics
Program: Mathematics and Statistics
Advisor: Kunze, HerbLa Torre, Davide
Abstract: The use of fractal-based methods in imaging was first popularized with fractal image compression in the early 1990s. In this application, one seeks to approximate a given target image by the fixed point of a contractive operator called the fractal transform. Typically, one uses Local Iterated Function Systems with Grey-Level Maps (LIFSM), where the involved functions map a parent (domain) block in an image to a smaller child (range) block and the grey-level maps adjust the shading of the shrunken block. The fractal transform is defined by the collection of optimal parent-child pairings and parameters defining the grey-level maps. Iteration of the fractal transform on any initial image produces an approximation of the fixed point and, hence, an approximation of the target image. Since the parameters defining the LIFSM take less space to store than the target image does, image compression is achieved.This thesis extends the theoretical and practical frameworks of fractal imaging to one involving a particular type of multifunction that captures the idea that there are typically many near-optimal parent-child pairings. Using this extended machinery, we treat three application areas. After discussing established edge detection methods, we present a fractal-based approach to edge detection with results that compare favourably to the Sobel edge detector. Next, we discuss two methods of information hiding: first, we explore compositions of fractal transforms and cycles of images and apply these concepts to image-hiding; second, we propose and demonstrate an algorithm that allows us to securely embed with redundancy a binary string within an image. Finally, we discuss some theory of certain random fractal transforms with potential applications to texturing.
Date: 2012-05
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