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Nutritional and Genomic Factors Affecting Gut Alkaline Phosphatase Functionality in Weanling Pigs

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Title: Nutritional and Genomic Factors Affecting Gut Alkaline Phosphatase Functionality in Weanling Pigs
Author: Yin, Xindi
Department: Department of Animal Biosciences
Program: Animal and Poultry Science
Advisor: Fan, Ming Z.
Abstract: Alkaline phosphatases (AP), a group of glycoproteins attached on the apical mucosal membrane of the gut, are crucial for maintaining gut health and whole-body homeostasis. The endogenous AP digestive capacity is contributed by intestinal-type AP (IAP) isoforms and/or tissue-nonspecific AP (TNAP) isoforms in the porcine intestine. This research was conducted to elucidate the effects of in-feed therapeutic antibiotic Aureomycin on growth performances, gut permeability, intestinal AP functionality and genomic determinants of AP isoforms in weanling pigs. Study-1 identified that 22-day dietary therapeutic Aureomycin supplementation promoted growth performances, and enhanced gut health status by decreasing (P < 0.05) fecal score and plasma D-mannitol concentration; whereas decreased (P < 0.05) the apparent dry matter digestibility in the hindgut and increased (P < 0.05) plasma total endotoxin activity in weanling pigs. In Study 2, weanling pigs fed the Aureomycin-supplemented diet had increased (P < 0.05) intestinal AP maximal enzyme activity (Vmax) in jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon; decreased (P < 0.05) AP enzyme affinity (higher Km) in jejunum, ileum, and colon; and higher (P = 0.003) cecal endotoxin activity compared to control pigs. Both IAP protein and mRNA abundances were higher (P < 0.05), primarily in the small intestine of the antibiotic-fed piglets, while no differences in TNAP abundances were found. Pearson correlation analyses further revealed that Vmax and Km of AP in the small intestine were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with average daily gain and average daily feed intake, while colonic AP Vmax was associated with plasma total endotoxin activity (r = 0.580, P = 0.048). Study-3 results indicated that IAP isoforms were primarily expressed in the small intestine, while both IAP and TNAP isoforms were expressed in cecum and colon. Results further showed glycosylation modifications differentially regulating the AP isoforms’ functionality in weanling pigs. Overall, intestinal endogenous AP functionality was modulated by therapeutic Aureomycin treatment, which may provide underlying mechanisms for the antibiotics-induced growth performances and gut health promotion in the weanling pig and the human metabolic endotoxemia and diseases developed with prior childhood exposure to antibiotic treatments.
Date: 2021-05
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