Main content

Vector-borne Viruses in Ungulates in Ontario, Canada: Distribution and Risk of Orbivirus Establishment

Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisor Nemeth, Nicole
dc.contributor.advisor Jardin, Claire
dc.contributor.author Allen, Samantha
dc.date.accessioned 2021-01-13T21:07:04Z
dc.date.available 2021-01-13T21:07:04Z
dc.date.copyright 2021-01
dc.date.created 2021-01-07
dc.date.issued 2019
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10214/23751
dc.description.abstract The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the potential risk posed by vector-borne pathogens to Ontario’s wildlife and livestock populations, in particular, epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDV) and bluetongue viruses (BTV). Ontario lacks information describing the prevalence and distribution of certain vectors and pathogens despite the imminent threat vector-borne pathogens may pose to wildlife and livestock populations with their northward spread facilitated by changing climatic conditions. A retrospective analysis was performed using post-mortem findings and diagnoses for wild cervids from Ontario and Nunavut over a 27-year period to provide a long-term outlook of detected diseases and potential health threats. The most common causes of morbidity and mortality were noninfectious. Deaths attributed to infectious diseases were most often bacterial in origin. Viral vector-borne pathogens were rarely documented. We documented the first cases of EHDV (serotype 2) in free-ranging white-tailed deer in southern Ontario in 2017. Then, we sought to characterize Culicoides vector abundance and distribution, as well as assess transmission of EHDV and BTV in livestock, and BTV, EHDV, West Nile virus (WNV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Powassan virus (POWV) and heartland virus from free-ranging and captive cervids across Ontario for two consecutive field seasons. From June-October of 2017-2018 LED light suction traps were placed on farms and in natural areas across southern Ontario, and all Culicoides vectors collected were taxonomically identified. A total of 33,905 Culicoides spp. were collected, encompassing 14 species from seven subgenera and one species group. Culicoides sonorensis, a known vector of EHDV and BTV, was collected both years. Additionally, C. kibunensis and C. baueri were collected both years and these represent new records for Ontario, with C. baueri representing a new species record for Canada. Blood samples from 349 livestock and 217 cervids were collected from 2016 to 2019. Fifteen (9.0%) cattle were seropositive for EHDV-serotype 2. Nine (4.2%) cervids were seropositive for flaviviruses; three were confirmed as WNV, three as EEEV, and one as POWV. Collectively, these results on vector and arthropod-borne virus abundance and distribution will contribute to the development of management strategies for safeguarding Ontario livestock and wildlife populations. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Guelph en_US
dc.subject bluetongue en_US
dc.subject bluetongue virus en_US
dc.subject epizootic hemorrhagic disease en_US
dc.subject epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus en_US
dc.subject Ontario en_US
dc.subject Canada en_US
dc.subject white-tailed deer en_US
dc.subject ruminant en_US
dc.subject cervid en_US
dc.subject Eastern equine encephalitis virus en_US
dc.subject Powassan virus en_US
dc.subject Heartland virus en_US
dc.subject West Nile virus en_US
dc.subject Ungulate en_US
dc.subject Chronic wasting disease en_US
dc.subject vector-borne virus en_US
dc.subject Culicoides spp. en_US
dc.title Vector-borne Viruses in Ungulates in Ontario, Canada: Distribution and Risk of Orbivirus Establishment en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.degree.programme Pathobiology en_US
dc.degree.name Doctor of Philosophy en_US
dc.degree.department Department of Pathobiology en_US
dc.rights.license All items in the Atrium are protected by copyright with all rights reserved unless otherwise indicated.
dcterms.relation Allen, S. E., Rothenburger, J. L., Jardine, C. M., Ambagala, A., Hooper-McGrevy, K., Colucci, N....Nemeth, N. M. (2019). Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in White-Tailed Deer, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 832-834. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180743. en_US
dcterms.relation Allen, S. E., Vogt, N. A., Stevens, B., Ruder, M. G., Jardine, C. M., & Nemeth, N. M. (2020). A RETROSPECTIVE SUMMARY OF CERVID MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN ONTARIO AND NUNAVUT REGIONS OF CANADA (1991-2017). Journal of wildlife diseases, 56 (4):884-895. https://doi.org/10.7589/JWD-D-19-00018 en_US
dcterms.relation Allen, S. E., Jardine, C. M., Hooper-McGrevy, K., Ambagala, A., Bosco-Lauth, A. M., Kunkel, M. R., Mead, D. G., Nituch, L., Ruder, M. G., & Nemeth, N. M. (2020). Serologic Evidence of Arthropod-Borne Virus Infections in Wild and Captive Ruminants in Ontario, Canada. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 103(5), 2100–2107. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0539 en_US
dc.degree.grantor University of Guelph en_US


Files in this item

Files Size Format View
Allen_Samantha_202101_PhD.pdf 2.047Mb PDF View/Open

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record