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ORGANIC BERRY POMACES TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH OF BROILER CHICKENS

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Title: ORGANIC BERRY POMACES TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH OF BROILER CHICKENS
Author: Das, Quail
Department: Department of Food Science
Program: Food Science
Advisor: Marcone, Massimo
Abstract: Berry pomace products possess antimicrobial properties due to their functionally bioactive molecules; however, the underlying mechanism of actions are poorly understood. This research investigates the antimicrobial activity of cranberry extracts (KCOH) and its sub-fractions against Salmonella enterica. Salmonella serovars show more sensitivity to flavonols and anthocyanin sub-fractions than KCOH. Transcriptional studies revealed that exposure of S. Enteritidis at sub-inhibitory concentrations of KCOH reduces the expression of major operon encodes structural components of Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands. While berries are beneficial in promoting human health, incorporation of such berry products in broiler chicken diets are scarce. The potential of cranberry (CP) and blueberry (BP) pomaces and their by-products as alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters were examined on day-old male Cobb500 broilers’ growth performance and gut microbiota for a 30-day trial. In the first chicken trial (n=2800), ethanolic extracts of cranberry pomaces (COH) resulted in better performance by increasing body weight and feed efficiency (FE), while CP feeding at 1% (CP1) decreased the prevalence of necrotic enteritis (NE) and coccidiosis compared to bacitracin (BACI) treatment (P < 0.05). qPCR studies showed the immunomodulatory effects of CP by reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in liver (IL-4, IFN-γ), while inducing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, 13 in spleen, and IL- 10 in bursa. 16S rRNA analysis showed higher relative abundances (RA) of Clostridiales in COH and BACI fed birds, while Lactobacillaceae and ‎Bacteroidaceae were abundant in CP1 and BP1 treated birds of ceca. In the second trial, the basal diet was enriched with animal protein using a group of birds vaccinated (n=1350) and a non-vaccinated (n=1350) against coccidiosis. Overall, BACI induced the best growth performance in vaccinated group, while no effect of treatments was observed in non-vaccinated group at 10 to 20 days of age. CP1 feeding provides similar incidences of coccidiosis and NE compared to BACI in non-vaccinated birds. Metagenomic analysis revealed a significant variation among different feed treatments. Both BACI and BP supplementations led to increased RA of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae, in the vaccinated group, while RA of Lactobacillaceae, was increased in the non-vaccinated group with the CP treatment.
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/10214/21296
Date: 2020
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Terms of Use: All items in the Atrium are protected by copyright with all rights reserved unless otherwise indicated.
Related Publications: Das, Q., Islam, M. R., Marcone, M. F., Warriner, K., & Diarra, M. S. (2017). Potential of berry extracts to control foodborne pathogens. Food Control, 73, 650-662. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.09.019Das, Q., Lepp, D., Yin, X., Ross, K., McCallum, J. L., Warriner, K., ... & Diarra, M. S. (2019). Transcriptional profiling of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis exposed to ethanolic extract of organic cranberry pomace. Plos one, 14(7), e0219163. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219163Das, Q., Islam, M. R., Lepp, D., Tang, J., Yin, X., Mats, L., ... & Warriner, K. (2020). Gut Microbiota, Blood Metabolites, and Spleen Immunity in Broiler Chickens Fed Berry Pomaces and Phenolic-Enriched Extractives. Front. Vet. Sci. 7: 150. Doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00150


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