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Epidemiology and One Health: Collaborative Research Investigating Public Health Challenges Related to Canines in Rural, Urban, and Remote Communities in Canada

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dc.contributor.advisor Sargeant, Jan Julien, Danielle 2020-06-11T21:28:03Z 2020-06-11T21:28:03Z 2020-06-10 2020-05-25 2020-06-11
dc.description.abstract This thesis is an investigation of public health challenges related to dogs in rural and urban communities in southern Ontario, and in remote Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada, using cross-sectional observational studies. First, we conducted a scoping review of canine zoonotic and vectorborne research in North American countries, categorized by the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). Most research was conducted in “very high” and “high” IHDI countries. Second, the prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were investigated in dogs in Iqaluit, Nunavut. Using Ecohealth and One Health approaches, feces were collected from three dog populations (sled (n=79), shelter (n=111), and community dogs (n=104)). The fecal prevalence of at least one parasite when one sample was chosen at random for all dogs was 8.16% (95% CI: 5.52-11.92), and of Giardia spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. was 4.42% (95% CI: 2.58-7.49) and 6.12% (95% CI: 3.88-9.53), respectively. We identified Giardia intestinalis, zoonotic assemblage B (n=2), and species-specific D (n=3) and E (n=1); and 5 samples containing Cryptosporidium canis. Third, we explored the prevalence of dog ownership, canine rabies vaccination, and the incidence of self-reported dog bites in humans; knowledge of zoonoses; and sources of dogs as pets in southern Ontario using an online questionnaire of n=1,002 rural and 1,004 urban respondents. The probability of owning at least one dog was higher in rural households than in urban households (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.48, p=0.02). Irrespective of dog ownership, the incidence risk of at least one bite victim over a one-year period in rural households (6.09% per year) was less than in urban households (10.76% per year). Of respondent-owned biting dogs, 16.67% were unvaccinated against rabies. Many respondents were aware of canine zoonoses (55.88%) and there were no differences in awareness between rural and urban respondents. Finally, over a seven-year period, 731 (36.44%) respondents domestically sourced, and 55 (2.74%) imported at least one dog, most frequently from the USA (n=29 of 55 (52.73%)). Findings highlight that in three geographically distinct communities, culturally sensitive and appropriate public health strategies are needed to mitigate risks of public health challenges related to dogs and enhance public knowledge of canine zoonoses. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Ontario Veterinary College PhD Fellowship; ArcticNet; Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Institute of Population and Public Health and Public Health Agency of Canada Applied Public Health Research Chair supporting Dr. Jan M. Sargeant (2008 – 2012). en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International *
dc.rights.uri *
dc.subject Epidemiology en_US
dc.subject Canine zoonoses en_US
dc.subject One Health en_US
dc.subject Public Health en_US
dc.title Epidemiology and One Health: Collaborative Research Investigating Public Health Challenges Related to Canines in Rural, Urban, and Remote Communities in Canada en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US Population Medicine en_US Doctor of Philosophy en_US
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