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Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilization in Steam Gasification of Biomass

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Title: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilization in Steam Gasification of Biomass
Author: Salaudeen, Shakirudeen
Department: School of Engineering
Program: Engineering
Advisor: Dutta, AnimeshAcharya, Bishnu
Abstract: The world is witnessing a rapid growth in population and energy consumption, and is faced with the responsibility of minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. This research investigates an innovative way of producing hydrogen enriched synthesis gas (syngas) from biomass using fluidized bed technology and in-process carbon capture. Eggshell is highly rich in calcium carbonate, suggesting that the material is potentially an attractive biosource of lime and thus is used as a source of CO2 sorbent in the gasification studies. Sawdust was used as the biomass in the gasification experiments. Investigation showed that increasing the calcined eggshell to biomass ratio (CEBR) provided more calcium oxide (CaO) to the process, promoted CO2 uptake and enhanced hydrogen enrichment. A minimum CO2 concentration of 3.3% and a maximum hydrogen concentration of 78% were obtained at a temperature of 650oC, steam to biomass ratio (SBR) of 1.2 and CEBR of 1.0. Experiments for obtaining the calcination and carbonation kinetic parameters of the eggshell were conducted by following the recommendations made by the Kinetics Committee of the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ICTAC). It is important to properly manage available energy facilities before biohydrogen becomes fully commercialized. With this in mind, another part of the research is on the gasification of biomass in an atmosphere of steam and CO2. The captured CO2 from the first part of the research can be utilized in this part. This investigation promotes the valorization of a greenhouse gas (CO2) and enhances the production of syngas with a flexible H2/CO ratio for various applications. It was found that the inclusion of CO2 as a co-gasifying agent promoted CO evolution, reduced H2 concentration, and consequently decreased the H2/CO ratio. The ratio reduced with a rise in temperature, increased with increasing CO2 to biomass ratio (CBR), and showed no significant change with pressure. A CBR of around 0.6 would be an optimum value for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to achieve a H2/CO of 2:1, but the CBR should be lower for processes requiring a lower H2/CO ratio like acetic acid formation and oxo-synthesis.
Date: 2020-04
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