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Deterministic risk assessment of firefighting water additives to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems

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Title: Deterministic risk assessment of firefighting water additives to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems
Author: Graetz, Sarah
Department: School of Environmental Sciences
Program: Environmental Sciences
Advisor: Sibley, PaulProsser, Ryan
Abstract: By utilizing firefighting water additives, firefighters can more efficiently extinguish residential, industrial and forest fires. There is limited data on the effect that these additives may have on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, therefore, studies were completed to investigate the toxicity of six firefighting water additives. To assess aquatic toxicity, toxicity tests with the firefighting water additives were conducted on Lemna minor, Daphnia magna, Hexagenia spp. larvae, Lampsilis fasciola and Oncorhynchus mykiss. To assess terrestrial toxicity, tests were conducted with three plant species and three species of soil invertebrate species. A hazard assessment was completed using the worst-case exposure scenario of the highest recommended concentration of each firefighting water additive for a Class-A fire (e.g., wood, paper) through direct application by an aerial drop. It was found that several of the firefighting water additives could pose a hazard to aquatic and terrestrial organisms depending on the species and the exposure scenario.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10214/17426
Date: 2019-09
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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Attribution 4.0 International Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 4.0 International