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Indoor Tanning and Youth - Compliance, Inspection, and Enforcement of Legislation

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dc.contributor.advisor McWhirter, Jennifer
dc.contributor.advisor Dewey, Cate
dc.contributor.author Reimann, Jessica
dc.date.accessioned 2019-08-21T20:36:13Z
dc.date.available 2019-08-21T20:36:13Z
dc.date.copyright 2019-06-27
dc.date.created 2019-06-27
dc.date.issued 2019-08-21
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10214/16932
dc.description.abstract Indoor tanning is a common health risk behaviour that exposes users to artificial ultraviolet radiation, which can lead to skin cancer. Evidence of the dangers of indoor tanning and its popularity, including among youth, has led jurisdictions around the world to implement indoor tanning legislations. The objective of this research was to determine compliance, implementation, impact, and enforcement of indoor tanning legislations, as well as access to indoor tanning facilities, and to provide suggestions for legislative amendments and improvements, with a focus on youth access and use. The findings of two systematic reviews indicate that while compliance with most aspects of indoor tanning legislation varies widely, including the all-important age restrictions (range=0–100%; mean=65%; SD=25), the prevalence of youth indoor tanning is significantly lower in jurisdictions with indoor tanning legislation compared to those without (n=4, mean=5% lower, range=1%–18% lower). Variability in compliance suggests indoor tanning legislations may not be as impactful as their fully intended protective purpose. In Ontario, survey research demonstrates that most indoor tanning legislation infractions were uncovered during non-mandatory routine inspections (n=234, 97%) rather than mandatory complaints-driven inspections (n=8, 3%) and have largely been related to a lack of required warning signs (n=201, 83%), with only one infraction related to youth access (n=1, 0.4%). Furthermore, geospatial analysis reveals 95% (n=655) of indoor tanning facilities in Ontario are located within 3 km of a high school, and 44% (n=300) are located within 3 km of a college or university. In Toronto specifically, the locations of indoor tanning facilities and schools cluster (p=0.004). Together, this suggests youth and young adults have relatively easy access to indoor tanning given the low compliance with indoor tanning legislation restricting youth access, small impact of indoor tanning legislation on youth indoor tanning use, lack of infractions related to youth access in Ontario, and close geographic distances between indoor tanning facilities and schools. Findings highlight the public health importance of indoor tanning legislation and the need for enhanced resource allocation to support inspection and enforcement, policy amendments, and new policy initiatives, including zoning by-laws, especially addressing youth access to indoor tanning facilities. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship The Ontario Veterinary College, the Graduate Student Growth Fund, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Institute Community Support Travel Award) en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Guelph en_US
dc.subject Skin Cancer Prevention Act en_US
dc.subject Inspection en_US
dc.subject Compliance en_US
dc.subject Enforcement en_US
dc.subject Indoor Tanning en_US
dc.subject Skin Cancer en_US
dc.subject Legislation en_US
dc.subject Health Policy en_US
dc.subject Youth Health en_US
dc.subject Cancer Prevention en_US
dc.title Indoor Tanning and Youth - Compliance, Inspection, and Enforcement of Legislation en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.degree.programme Population Medicine en_US
dc.degree.name Doctor of Philosophy en_US
dc.degree.department Department of Population Medicine en_US
dc.rights.license All items in the Atrium are protected by copyright with all rights reserved unless otherwise indicated.
dc.degree.grantor University of Guelph en_US


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