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Implications of a Cage-Free Layer System on Ammonia and Particulate Matter Generation

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Title: Implications of a Cage-Free Layer System on Ammonia and Particulate Matter Generation
Author: Anderson, Jaime
Department: School of Engineering
Program: Engineering
Advisor: Van Heyst, Bill
Abstract: Pollutants resulting from poultry housing facilities are of great concern to the environment, public health and hen welfare. A shift in consumer attitudes towards hen welfare has influenced food distributors to publicly commit to transitioning exclusively to the use of eggs from cage-free housing systems. In order to meet the needs of consumers, the egg production industry is transitioning to cage-free, enriched-cage or free-run systems. To assess the environmental sustainability of cage-free housing, a one-year measurement campaign was conducted to determine the emission factors of ammonia (NH3) and size fractioned particulate matter (PM2.5 & PM10) from a commercial cage-free facility in Perth County Ontario. The emission factors, of this facility, determined experimentally, were compared to the emission levels reported in literature for conventional battery cages. The average emission factors of NH3, PM2.5 and PM10 were 81.41 ± 42.92, 24.93 ± 5.47 and 51.78 ± 13.19 g day-1 AU-1 (AU – Animal Unit equivalent to 500 kg live mass), respectively. The emission rates for NH3, PM2.5 and PM10 found in this study were 4.2, 22.7 and 20.3 times higher than those for a conventional battery cage layer facility located in Wellington Country Ontario.
Date: 2018-08
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