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Thyroid Hormones Accelerate Larval Skeletogenesis in Sea Urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) Through a Membrane Receptor-Mediated MAPK Signalling Cascade

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dc.contributor.advisor Heyland, Andreas
dc.contributor.author Taylor, Elias
dc.date.accessioned 2018-01-16T16:13:56Z
dc.date.available 2018-12-13T06:00:58Z
dc.date.copyright 2017-12
dc.date.created 2017-12-13
dc.date.issued 2018-01-16
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10214/12311
dc.description.abstract Thyroid hormones are critical regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. In indirect-developing sea urchins, there is strong evidence that thyroid hormones accelerate growth of the juvenile rudiment, a necessary structure for metamorphosis. The juvenile rudiment contains skeletal elements required for survival as an adult sea urchin. I investigated the effects of thyroid hormones on development and skeletogenesis (de novo generation of skeleton) in sea urchins. As well, I investigated a mechanism through which thyroid hormones act on skeletogenesis. Thyroid hormones accelerate initiation of skeletogenesis in several stages of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus larval development, including during gastrulation, formation of the posterodorsal arms, and development of the juvenile rudiment. Thyroid hormones bind to a membrane receptor in skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells. Pharmacological inhibition suggests that this membrane receptor is an integrin and triggers a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade acting through ERK1/2 which phosphorylates transcription factors regulating skeletogenesis, including Ets1 and Alx1. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship NSERC Discovery Grant to Andreas Heyland (400230) en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 Canada *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/ca/ *
dc.subject Thyroid hormones en_US
dc.subject Nongenomic en_US
dc.subject Sea urchin en_US
dc.subject Integrin αVβ3 en_US
dc.subject Skeletogenesis en_US
dc.subject Mesenchyme en_US
dc.subject Primary mesenchyme cells en_US
dc.subject Biomineralization en_US
dc.subject MAPK en_US
dc.title Thyroid Hormones Accelerate Larval Skeletogenesis in Sea Urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) Through a Membrane Receptor-Mediated MAPK Signalling Cascade en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.degree.programme Integrative Biology en_US
dc.degree.name Master of Science en_US
dc.degree.department Department of Integrative Biology en_US
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Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 Canada Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 Canada