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The Effects of Estrogen, Grape Pomace, and Resveratrol Supplementation on Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Signaling in Ovariectomized Rats.

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dc.contributor.advisor Dyck, David
dc.contributor.author Anderson, Eoin
dc.date.accessioned 2017-09-01T17:39:18Z
dc.date.available 2017-09-01T17:39:18Z
dc.date.copyright 2017-08
dc.date.created 2017-08-15
dc.date.issued 2017-09-01
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10214/11489
dc.description.abstract Estrogen (E2) loss results in increased visceral adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance. Estrogen replacement may restore insulin sensitivity if given shortly after menopause, but may be associated with side effects such as ovarian cancer. Other alternatives should be explored. Natural compounds such as resveratrol (RESV) and grape pomace (GP) have potential insulin sensitizing effects. To our knowledge, the efficacy of RESV and GP in restoring glucose tolerance in ovariectomized (OVX) rats has not been explored. Diet was administered ad libitum to sham control (SHAM) and OVX female rats until the onset of glucose intolerance in OVX rats as determined by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Subsequently, OVX animals were divided into treatment and control groups. The treatment groups received daily, one of i) a physiological oral dose of E2, ii) RESV, or iii) GP supplemented in the diet. Treatment continued for 6 wks followed by IPGTT and insulin tolerance tests. 2-3 d later, terminal surgeries were performed during which red and white gastrocnemius muscles, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver were sampled to assess Akt response to insulin injection. VAT was stained to determine adipocyte size. None of the treatments restored normal glucose tolerance. Insulin tolerance was not worsened in OVX rats, and was unaffected with treatment. No difference in phosphorylation of the insulin signaling protein, Akt, was found after insulin injection in any tissue between SHAM and OVX rats. Adipocyte size was significantly increased in the OVX-E2 and OVX-RESV groups compared to SHAM. Delayed E2 replacement, RESV and GP were not effective in restoring normal glucose tolerance in OVX rats. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights Attribution 2.5 Canada *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/ca/ *
dc.subject Resveratrol en_US
dc.subject Grape Pomace en_US
dc.subject Glucose tolerance en_US
dc.subject Estrogen loss en_US
dc.subject Estrogen en_US
dc.subject Ovariectomy en_US
dc.title The Effects of Estrogen, Grape Pomace, and Resveratrol Supplementation on Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Signaling in Ovariectomized Rats. en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.degree.programme Human Health and Nutritional Sciences en_US
dc.degree.name Master of Science en_US
dc.degree.department Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences en_US
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Attribution 2.5 Canada Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 2.5 Canada