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Environmental Contaminants and Respiratory Innate Immunity: In Vitro Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Crude Oil on Tracheal Antimicrobial Peptide Gene Expression.

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dc.contributor.advisor Caswell, Jeff
dc.contributor.author Bourque, Laura
dc.date.accessioned 2017-05-01T19:31:58Z
dc.date.available 2017-05-01T19:31:58Z
dc.date.copyright 2017-03
dc.date.created 2017-04-12
dc.date.issued 2017-05-01
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10214/10334
dc.description.abstract Respiratory disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cetaceans, which are also threatened by environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; immunotoxic constituents of crude oil). Cetaceans exposed to oil spills may inhale volatile PAHs which could potentially affect respiratory immunity. PAHs activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor which can affect immunity through interaction with NF-κB. β-defensins are potent antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in defending the lower airway from pathogens. β-defensin expression is known to be dependent on NF-κB, and so we hypothesized that PAHs may suppress pulmonary β-defensins and to pneumonia pathogenesis. This hypothesis was modeled by measuring the effects of benzo(a)pyrene (BAP), phenanthrene, naphthalene, and crude oil on tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) gene expression in primary cell cultures of bovine tracheal epithelial cells. It was found that exposure to either crude oil or PAHs was associated with suppression of TAP gene expression in cultures. However, the consistency of this result varied in significance between both PAHs and calves. BAP consistently caused a statistically significant (P = 0.002) suppression of TAP gene expression in a dose dependent manner in the majority of calves. These are the first data to show that exposure to PAHs suppresses β-defensin gene expression. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/ca/ *
dc.subject Defensin en_US
dc.subject Trachea en_US
dc.subject Innate immunity en_US
dc.subject Pneumonia en_US
dc.subject Cetacean en_US
dc.subject Bovine en_US
dc.subject Hydrocarbon en_US
dc.subject Oil en_US
dc.title Environmental Contaminants and Respiratory Innate Immunity: In Vitro Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Crude Oil on Tracheal Antimicrobial Peptide Gene Expression. en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.degree.programme Pathobiology en_US
dc.degree.name Doctor of Veterinary Science en_US
dc.degree.department Department of Pathobiology en_US
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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada