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Effects of Hybridization on Heterochromatic Small Interfering RNA and Gene Expression in Zea mays

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dc.contributor.advisor Lukens, Lewis
dc.contributor.author Coleman, Travis Korry
dc.date.accessioned 2017-01-06T18:23:02Z
dc.date.available 2017-12-20T06:00:15Z
dc.date.copyright 2017-01
dc.date.created 2016-12-20
dc.date.issued 2017-01-06
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10214/10185
dc.description.abstract Heterosis for quantitative traits in maize (Zea mays L.) is generally controlled by the cumulative effects of multiple genes and regulatory elements. In particular, 24-nt heterochromatic small interfering RNAs (hetsiRNAs) may affect heterosis of gene expression by mediating trans-genomic interactions when two genomes come into contact in an F1 nucleus. Previous research has suggested that hetsiRNAs exhibit non-additive expression upon hybridization, with the majority of hetsiRNAs being downregulated compared to parental levels. This could have implications for the regulation of nearby genes, thus influencing heterosis of gene expression in a non-Mendelian and epigenetic manner. This research sought to examine trends in hetsiRNA expression and hetsiRNA/gene co-expression resulting from hybridization of commercial maize germplasm. Small RNA and mRNA were isolated and deep sequenced from two inbred lines and their F1 hybrid. Results confirmed that mean hetsiRNA expression was significantly reduced in the F1 hybrid relative to its parents. The F1 hybrid also demonstrated a marked reduction in hetsiRNA diversity, with 41% of hetsiRNA clusters being expressed in one or both parents but not the hybrid. Similarly, classifying hetsiRNA expression in the hybrid relative to the expected midparent value demonstrated that the vast majority of hetsiRNA clusters were expressed below the midparent level, with many transgressive below the low parent. Localization of hetsiRNA clusters within the boundaries of a genic frame showed a strong enrichment of hetsiRNA clusters in the +/- 1 kb flanks of genic regions. Expression level analyses indicated a mean downregulation of both hetsiRNA and mRNA expression relative to expected midparent values for a small but significant number of genes with co-located hetsiRNA clusters. Furthermore, knockout of hetsiRNA production in the mediator of paramutation 1 mutant mop1-1 demonstrated a trend toward upregulation of genes relative to the wildtype. These results suggest that hetsiRNA may play a limited role in non-additive, epigenetic regulation of gene expression in hybrids. These findings have implications for the development of hybrid crop species and the notion of an epigenome that may not exhibit traditional patterns of Mendelian inheritance and may therefore affect phenotype in an unpredictable manner. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship DuPont Pioneer, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/ca/ *
dc.subject bioinformatics en_US
dc.subject maize en_US
dc.subject zea mays en_US
dc.subject heterosis en_US
dc.subject hybridization en_US
dc.subject corn en_US
dc.subject small RNA en_US
dc.subject small interfering RNA en_US
dc.subject heterochromatic siRNA en_US
dc.subject siRNA en_US
dc.subject deep sequencing en_US
dc.subject mop1 en_US
dc.subject mediator of paramutation en_US
dc.subject gene expression en_US
dc.subject molecular genetics en_US
dc.subject methylation en_US
dc.subject heterochromatin en_US
dc.subject epigenetics en_US
dc.title Effects of Hybridization on Heterochromatic Small Interfering RNA and Gene Expression in Zea mays en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.degree.programme Plant Agriculture en_US
dc.degree.name Doctor of Philosophy en_US
dc.degree.department Department of Plant Agriculture en_US
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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada