Evaluating the importance of zoonotic bacteria, antimicrobial use and resistance in aquaculture and seafood

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Authors

Tuševljak, Nataša

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University of Guelph

Abstract

This thesis employs research synthesis methods (scoping study (ScS) and systematic review-meta-analysis (SR-MA)) to characterize and evaluate the existing primary research on antimicrobial use (AMU), antimicrobial resistance (AMR), selected zoonotic bacteria in aquaculture. It also describes an elicitation of global expert opinion on these topics. Evidence maps from the ScS identified knowledge gaps (AMU and the association between AMU-AMR), and strengths (prevalence/interventions for 'Vibrio' and 'Aeromonas' at the farm level). SR revealed consistent flaws in methodology/reporting of research on prevalence/concentration of 'Aeromonas, E. coli, Salmonella' and 'Vibrio' in clams, mussels, oysters, salmon, shrimp (including prawn), and tilapia from processing to retail. Retail level MA revealed significant heterogeneity across the studies. The questionnaire achieved a response rate of 32.9% (n=199) and was most representative of North Americans (n=152) involved in clinical work (n=91). Respondents reported quinolone use in North America, Europe and Asia; frequent tetracycline use and resistance across aquatic species.

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Keywords

research synthesis methods, systematic review-meta-analysis, primary research, antimicrobial use, antimicrobial resistance, zoonotic bacteria, aquaculture

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