Demographic, Husbandry, and Biosecurity Factors Associated with the Presence of Campylobacter spp. and Tetracycline- and Quinolone- Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Small Poultry Flocks in Ontario, Canada

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Authors

Schweitzer, Paige

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University of Guelph

Abstract

Over two years, a surveillance project was conducted to establish the prevalence of poultry and zoonotic pathogens, among small flocks in Ontario, Canada. Our objective was to investigate demographic, husbandry, and biosecurity factors associated with the presence of Campylobacter spp. and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter spp. We identified turkeys and mixed housing as risk factors; antibiotic use within the last 12 months, birds having some free-range access, and dedicated clothing use, as protective factors. The effect of pest control depended on the number of birds at risk. We identified the presence of sheep and/or goats on the property and larger flock sizes as having protective effects against tetracycline resistance in Campylobacter isolates and waterfowl and game birds as increasing the odds of quinolone resistance. This work underlines the importance of appropriate disease management methods by small flock owners to prevent and control the zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter spp. and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter spp.

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Keywords

backyard flock, management, poultry housing, Campylobacter species, epidemiology, cross-sectional study, antimicrobial resistance, biosecurity practices, tetracycline resistance, quinolone resistance

Citation

Schweitzer, P.M., Susta, L., Varga, C., Brash, M.L., Guerin, M.T. Demographic, Husbandry, and Biosecurity Factors Associated with the Presence of Campylobacter spp. in Small Poultry Flocks in Ontario, Canada. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1471. https://doi.org/10.3390/ pathogens10111471