Transformation of Wheat Starch During Baking and Storage of Bread
A complex approach to study starch behavior in bread-like systems was utilized. The physical state of starch was monitored during the making and storage of bread from a variety of flours. Chemical composition of the flours was evaluated using traditional and new methods. A number of instrumental techniques, including less conventional techniques and never previously used combinations, were utilized. The main methods included: viscometry (micro visco-amylo-graph) to study pasting properties; differential scanning calorimetry to evaluate the sol-gel transition of starch; thermogravimetric analysis to study the thermal decomposition of flours; powder X-ray diffraction to evaluate crystallinity and retrogradation of starch within the flours and the bread samples. The relationship between the measured properties and the parameters of the flours, such as their nature, origin, chemical composition, storage time and storage temperature, has been evaluated and is discussed. A new analytical method to test the flour composition has been proposed.