Solving for the Value of X: The Impacts of X Markers on Government-Issued Identity Documents in Ontario



Clowater, Victoria

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University of Guelph


This thesis explores the impacts of X gender markers on government-issued IDs for nonbinary people in Ontario, Canada. Little research has examined the impacts of X gender markers on nonbinary people. This research addresses this gap through qualitative research with eleven nonbinary Ontarians. While X markers play a crucial role in creating space for nonbinary people, the current approach taken in Ontario is insufficient to create equity for nonbinary people. I explore how nonbinary people adopt, contest, and define the term “nonbinary” and how they relate to X markers, as well as the labour that nonbinary people must perform in order to challenge how the binary is embedded in various public and private contexts. I conclude by arguing that gender marker change should be made more accessible, and that systems must be made more inclusive of nonbinary possibilities.



nonbinary, gender, transgender, queer, anthropology, X markers, gender markers