Molecular Epidemiological study of Campylobacter spp. Carriage in Mammalian Wildlife and Livestock on Southern Ontario
This thesis is focuses on Campylobacter carriage in mammalian wildlife and livestock in southern Ontario. Multi-level logistic regression models were constructed to investigate Campylobacter spp. and antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter spp. carriage in wildlife and livestock species on 25 farms. Samples were collected from dairy and beef cattle, swine and raccoons as well as a selection of other mammalian wildlife. Molecular subtyping data, produced by the Campylobacter–specific 40-gene comparative genomic fingerprinting assay (CGF40), were used to compare isolates from wildlife and livestock. Cluster analysis was conducted to visualize the groupings of wildlife and livestock C. jejuni isolates found. Wildlife and livestock carried Campylobacter at significantly different prevalences, had different antibiograms, and rarely shared the same CGF40 subtypes. Dendrogram and correspondence analysis indicated that the subtypes of Campylobacter circulating in livestock and wildlife populations were distinct. Combined, these results suggest that transmission between mammalian wildlife, especially raccoons, and livestock is limited.