Distribution and Sources of Clostridium difficile Present in Water Sources
Community Acquired Clostridium difficile Infection CA-CDI is becoming increasingly significant. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and sources of Clostridium difficile in different water sources and compare the ribotypes carried by animals to those isolated from water. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 36 (35%) of the 102 samples collected from different water sources and from 4 (14%) manure samples derived from beef and cattle. Clostridium difficile isolates obtained from different water sources and animals were all susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, with variable susceptibility to clindamycin. Ribotypes 078, F2 and F3 were the most resistant strains representing 33.3% of the resistant isolates each. In addition ribotype 078 was the most intermediate resistant representing 65% of the intermediate resistant strains. Collectively, the data would suggest that Clostridium difficile recovered in water was likely derived from both animal and human sources.