Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization Studies of Dichlorotoluenses, Dichloroanilines, and Dichlorophenols
A new instrument using a time-of-flight (TOF) mass filter (MF) for resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) studies of gas phase molecules was developed. This instrument was designed to make use of the selectivity of the REMPI process and the sensitivity of a TOF-MF with a microchannel plate detector. A pulsed valve inlet system was tested to determine its effectiveness in “cooling” molecules but it was not used for the bulk of the studies performed. The instrument was tested using molecular and atomic bromine, atomic carbon, and atomic iodine. The atomic bromine, carbon, and iodine, were generated by the photodissociation of molecular bromine, hydrocarbons, and methyl iodide respectively. Nitrogen gas in air was used to test the pulsed valve system. The instrument was then used to conduct REMPI studies of five dichlorotoluene (DCT) isomers (2,4-DCT; 2,5-DCT; 3,4-DCT; 2,6-DCT; and 2,3-DCT). REMPI studies of six dichloroaniline (DCA) isomers, including 2,5-DCA; 3,4-DCA; 3,5-DCA; 2,6-DCA; 2,4-DCA; and 2,3-DCA were conducted. Six isomers of dichlorophenol (DCP) were studied (2,5-DCP; 3,4-DCP; 3,5-DCP; 2,3-DCP; 2,4-DCP; and 2,6-DCP). It was determined that the 2,3-DCP; 2,4-DCP; and 2,6-DCP isomers photodissociated to form CCl, which itself could be observed through a REMPI process. The results from the REMPI studies of the dichloroaromatics and data from previous ultraviolet, infrared, and RAMAN studies of these molecules was used in order to assign the observed peaks. The observed 0,0 π→π* transition energies of the dichloroaromatics studied were used along with ultraviolet 0,0 π→π* transition energies from previous works in order to discuss substituent effects. A qualitative method of predicting the relative location of 0,0 π→π* transition energies of dichloroaromatics was developed.