Development of Soybean Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Its Primary Overwintering Host, Rhamnus cathartica
Thermally dependent development of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) and common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) were examined in growth chambers in spring 2005. Models based on ambient air temperatures for all development events were developed. Adjusted models were developed to account for heat units acquired because of solar radiation. These models were tested at field sites in Guelph and Ridgetown, Ontario, Canada. It was found that egg hatch of aphids and bud swell of buckthorn coincided at low temperatures in growth chambers and in the field. Development thresholds of 9 and 10 C were acquired for bud swell and egg hatch, respectively. Models based on ambient air temperatures were poor predictors of bud swell and egg hatch in the field, but models adjusted for solar radiation predicted these events just 1-4 d before they were observed at both sites. The results obtained have broad application for predicting aphid hatch on a regional basis.