Investigating different processing techniques, supplemental enzymes, and bird strain on utilization of flaxseed by layers
AMEn of whole and ground flaxseed introduced gradually or abruptly to a diet, was variable. AMEn of flaxseed was increased (P < 0.05) when fed in a pelleted diet compared to mash. Extruding flaxseed increased (P < 0.05) diet AMEn while subjecting a diet to expanding and pelleting reduced (P < 0.05) AMEn. Hens fed the expanded and pelleted diet deposited less (P < 0.05) DHA and LNA in their eggs compared to a pelleted diet. The addition of enzymes to a flaxseed diet did not increase its AMEn; however, egg deposition of LNA and DHA were increased (P < 0.05). Fatty acid profiles of flaxseed showed that the fatty acid content of flaxseed is consistent. Egg production parameters were not (P > 0.05) affected by feeding flaxseed; however, feed intake, body weight, and yolk weight were reduced (P < 0.05). Total egg n-3 fatty acids were not different (P > 0.05) between strains. Flax-fed hens had greater (P < 0.05) incidence of liver hemorrhage.