The longitudinal adaptation process of international students in Canada
In the present chapter an acculturation model referred to as the Multi-dimensional Individual Difference Acculturation (MIDA) model has been examined using longitudinal data. The present data are the first to capture the directional paths between the predictor and outcome variables in the MIDA model. Sixty international students living in Canada participated in online surveys at two times. The results of the study indicated that resources and difficulties (Psychosocial Resources, Co-National Connectedness, and Academic Hassles) at Time 1 (T1) were better predictors of health status and socio-cultural adaptation (Ingroup Contact, Outgroup Contact, and Psychophysical Distress) at Time 2 (T2, 18 months later) than the reverse model. These findings provide strong support for the MIDA model and demonstrate that the predictor variables do, in fact, predict the outcome variables over time and, more importantly, that the reverse is not the case.