Effects of BPA and BPS on the Anti-Mullerian Hormone Receptor and Downstream SMAD Proteins in Bovine Granulosa Cells
Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as Bisphenol A (BPA) and Bisphenol S (BPS) has been shown to have consequences for embryonic development through the dysregulation of several hormonal pathways governing reproduction. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), a positive predictor of fertility, has been shown to be affected by exposure to bisphenols, however, the interaction between bisphenols and mediators of the AMH pathway has not yet been clarified. This study evaluated the effects of BPA and BPS on the AMH signaling pathway in bovine granulosa cells through the analysis of AMH receptor (AMHRII) and SMADs, downstream signaling effectors in the AMH pathway. Our findings show that BPA alters SMAD expression and BPS alters AMHRII expression in normal and AMHRII knocked-down granulosa cells respectively. This study suggests that BPA exerts its effects independently of the AMH receptor while BPS may act directly through the AMH signaling pathway providing further evidence against the safety of both BPA and its analogs.