Exploring the Role of Knowledge Synthesis and Knowledge Translation Methodologies in One Health

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University of Guelph

Almost two decades have passed since One Health (OH) was established as a holistic approach to health, but awareness of OH has largely remained limited to specific communities (e.g., veterinary researchers). This thesis explored knowledge synthesis (KS) and knowledge translation (KT) as methods that can increase the utilization of available OH publications to engage broader OH audiences. A descriptive KS (i.e., scoping review) was conducted to summarize primary research reporting use of OH. This identified the diverse scope of OH research and can be a resource for gaining knowledge of OH applications. Analytical KS (i.e., systematic review and sequential meta-analysis) was conducted to evaluate a specific OH-informed action; use of internal teat sealants (ITS), a non-antibiotic therapy, to reduce incidence of dairy cow intramammary infections (IMI) and clinical mastitis (CM). Internal teat sealants significantly reduced the odds of IMI (at calving) and CM (at 30 days in milk) in comparison to no treatment (ORIMI=0.29, 95%CI=0.27-0.32; ORCM=0.47, 95%CI=0.42-0.51). These results can support dairy sector decision-makers and promote antibiotic stewardship as a factor in the complex OH issue of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Preferred knowledge translation methods were investigated with students in programs representing the classic OH pillars; human health (medical students), animal health (veterinary students), and physical environment health (environmental studies students). Based on the qualitative description produced from semi-structured interviews with 24 students, in-curriculum OH coursework and self-paced KT tools were preferred OH learning formats. Self-paced digital tools were then investigated with decision-makers who can apply OH knowledge in their specific context. Tools (i.e., website, podcast, gaming app, and publications) summarized actionable dairy antimicrobial stewardship evidence (e.g., ITS efficacy) and were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial with 20 Ontario dairy veterinarians. The website was most effective based on user-experience, but the small sample size limited further analysis. Overall, both KS and KT give researchers the ability to tailor evidence inclusion to holistic goals in both broad and specific contexts, as was done here, but this process can be resource-intensive and time-consuming. They have potential to support better use of available OH knowledge to promote broader OH awareness and should be explored further to understand their feasibility in different contexts.

One Health, Knowledge synthesis, Knowledge translation, Digital self-paced tools, Scoping review, One Health primary research, Systematic review and sequential meta-analysis, Qualitative description, Randomized controlled trial, Antimicrobial stewardship, Dairy health
Pearce, S. D., Parmley, E. J., Winder, C. B., Sargeant, J. M., Prashad, M., Ringelberg, M., Felker, M., & Kelton, D. F. (2023). Evaluating the efficacy of internal teat sealants at dry-off for the prevention of new intra-mammary infections during the dry-period or clinical mastitis during early lactation in dairy cows: A systematic review update and sequential meta-analysis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 212, 105841. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2023.105841
Prashad, M., & Pearce, S. Bayesian Sequential Meta-Analysis: R Code 2022 Guelph, Ontario, Canada. https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/26901/BayesianSequentialMetaAnalysisRCode_SP_MP.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Pearce, S. D., Kelton, D.F., Winder, C.B., Sargeant, J. M., Goltz, J., & Parmley, E. J. (2023) Characterizing how One Health is defined and used within primary research: A scoping review, International Journal of One Health. 9(2): 74�??86. doi.org/10.14202/IJOH.2023.74-86