Investigating the Prevalence and Transmission of Campylobacter on Farms in the United States and Canada
Campylobacter are common food-borne bacteria that represent a substantial burden of illness in humans. Although chickens are a common source of human infection, Campylobacter infects many different food animal species. However, there is limited research that quantifies the presence of Campylobacter in livestock species at the beginning of the farm-to-fork production chain in the United States and Canada. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in live dairy cattle, beef cattle, chicken, turkey, and swine. Further, a deterministic model was developed to examine the wide variation in the observed prevalence that is reported in chickens. Findings show that Campylobacter is widely prevalent in livestock and poultry farms, and that prevalence in chickens may be impacted by the time at which the flock is exposed to the pathogen. This research provides baseline data for future investigations into control interventions that reduce the on-farm prevalence of Campylobacter.