Matrix Analysis and Operator Theory with Applications to Quantum Information Theory
We explore the connection between quantum error correction and quantum cryptography through the notion of conjugate (or complementary) channels. This connection is at the level of subspaces and operator subsystems; if we use a more general form of subsystem, the link between the two topics breaks down. We explore both the subspace and subsystem settings. Error correction arises as a means of addressing the issue of the introduction of noise to a message being sent from one party to another. Noise also plays a role in quantum measurement theory: If one wishes to measure a system that is in a particular state via a measurement apparatus, one can first act upon the system by a quantum channel, which can be thought of as a noise source, and then measure the resulting system using a different measurement apparatus. Such a setup amounts to the introduction of noise to the measurement process, yet has the advantage of preserving the measurement statistics. Preprocessing by a quantum channel leads to the partial order "cleaner than" on quantum probability measures. Other meaningful partial orders on quantum probability measures exist, and we shall investigate that of cleanness as well as that of absolute continuity. Lastly, we investigate partial orders on vectors corresponding to quantum states; such partial orders, namely majorization and trumping, have been linked to entanglement theory. We characterize trumping first by means of yet another partial order, power majorization, which gives rise to a family of examples. We then characterize trumping through the complete monotonicity of certain Dirichlet polynomials corresponding to the states in question. This not only generalizes a recent characterization of trumping, but the use of such mathematical objects simpli es the derivation of the result.