Morphological stability and surface growth mechanism studies in electrocrystallization of copper
This thesis describes the investigation of the surface morphology evolution as a function of time and variables such as temperature, concentration of organic additives and current density. To extract the morphological information, digital analysis of AFM images was performed. It involved scaling analysis and spectral power density. The morphological information contained in the image can be encoded in a small set of parameters--scaling exponents. The spectral power density gives insight into smoothing and roughening mechanisms dominating the surface growth. Nodulation was also studied in this thesis. The affect of anode passivation on the nodulation of the deposited Cu was identified in the laboratory. A high concentration of glue initiates nodulation during Cu electrodeposition. Three models are discussed to elucidate the nodulation mechanisms. We have demonstrated that different mechanisms leave a characteristic signature in the nodule morphology. These characteristics of nodules may be used to identify the cause of nodulation.