Quality, Phytonutrient and Antioxidant Properties of Bread Baked with Different Methods
Wholegrain foods are recognized sources of dietary fiber and antioxidants. This study investigated the effect of using different bread-making methods and subsequent storage on the quality, phytonutrient contents and antioxidant properties of wholegrain bread. The wholegrain breads were prepared by three methods, straight dough, sponge dough, and sourdough (15%–35% starter) and stored at room temperature for 7 days. Quality of wholegrain bread was significantly influenced by the bread-making method with the highest loaf volume and better crumb softness was obtained in bread made by sourdough method with 15% starter. In addition, 15% sourdough breads exhibited the least changes during storage as compared to straight and sponge dough breads (yeast-leavened). Significant increases were found in free ferulic acid for all the bread products, whereas slight increases were observed in the bound form particularly in sourdough breads. Sourdough fermentation also increased total carotenoid content but reduced total flavonoid content. All wholegrain bread products had significant increases in antioxidant properties as measured by the DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays, compared with the wholegrain flour. During storage, the sponge dough and sourdough methods were more effective in preserving phytonutrients compared to straight dough method. The results suggest that the sourdough method would be a useful tool in producing high-quality wholegrain breads rich in phytonutrients that would satisfy consumer needs and boost health benefits.