Whitewater Park Design Principles: An Integrated Approach for Multiple User Groups
Existing whitewater courses have several design issues relating to their ability to balance expert, novice recreational, and commercial use. The goal of this study is to establish a better understanding of whitewater park design that incorporates the needs of multiple user groups in one integrated approach. Through elite interviewing whitewater park design was investigated and the data was analyzed identifying seven design principles and thirty seven detailed design recommendations. These design principles and recommendations were applied to create a preliminary conceptual design of a whitewater park. The design recommendations and conceptual design were evaluated by a professional whitewater course designer. The evaluation revealed that adaptability is an important principle in whitewater park design and that design recommendations must be flexible to allow for client input and site constraints. This research expands our knowledge of multifunctional design of whitewater parks that resolves user conflicts and important functional relationships.