Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) in Ontario: Survey and Control in Soybean (Glycine max L.)
Giant ragweed is an extremely competitive weed and poor control in soybean could lead to significant yield losses for Ontario producers. In 2008, a giant ragweed biotype near Windsor, ON was not controlled with glyphosate and further testing confirmed it as the first glyphosate-resistant (GR) weed in Canada. Giant ragweed seed was collected from 102 locations in Essex (70), Kent (21), Lambton (10) and Waterloo (1) counties to document the occurrence and distribution of GR giant ragweed in Ontario. Giant ragweed seedlings were sprayed with glyphosate at 1800 g a.e. ha-1, and evaluated 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after application (DAA). Results from the survey concluded that there are 47 additional locations in southwestern Ontario with GR giant ragweed. The majority of the sites were found in Essex county, but there was one location in both Chatham-Kent and Lambton counties. Field trials were established at six sites with GR giant ragweed during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. The objectives were to determine the level of giant ragweed control with increasing doses of glyphosate, and glyphosate tank mixes applied either preplant or postemergence. Control of giant ragweed increased with higher doses of glyphosate, but only at doses that are not economical for producers. The most effective glyphosate tank mixes were 2, 4-D ester, saflufenacil, linuron, and cloransulam-methyl providing up to 98, 94, 99 and 97% control 4 weeks after application (WAA), respectively. Glyphosate plus dicamba in dicamba-tolerant soybean provided up to 100% giant ragweed control, 4 WAA at the three confined field trial locations.