Influence of Fenugreek gum on bread and in vitro physiological effects
This thesis examined the effect of fenugreek gum, from Canadian grown fenugreek on bread quality, when substituted for wheat flour at 5 % and 10 %, and the in vitro physiological effects of these breads, based on models of acute and long - term feeding. Study I determined bread could be produced with 10 % fenugreek gum, while maintaining quality parameters of volume and texture, comparable to a control. This was accomplished through the development of a novel bread production method, using the lamination procedure for puff pastry production. The behavior of fenugreek gum and starch (wheat flour) was determined by rapid visco analysis (RVA), farinograph and dynamic rheological measurement, while scanning electron microscopy of bread found fenugreek gum could be identified within the bread matrix. Study 2 in vitro starch digestion found fenugreek gum at 5 % and 10 % reduced glucose liberated from bread, with 10 % fenugreek gum causing a reduction of over 30 %. RVA of fenugreek breads highlighted differences in viscosity between breads and wheat flour substituted with the gum. This was substantial as viscosity measurements by RVA are conducted on raw ingredients and not the food as consumed, which reflects the possible reduction in viscosity with food processing. This study also determined extruding fenugreek gum may have caused morphological changes to the gum, which may possibly contribute to attenuation of glucose liberated in vitro. Study 3 evaluated the accumulation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) from the fermentation of three substrates: Extruded fenugreek gum, bread with 10 % extruded gum and control bread, based on fecal microbiota from three donors. SCFA profiles varied with substrates and donors, with fenugreek gum having the highest accumulation of SCFA after 12 hours. Donors were a caucuasian Canadian, a black Jamaican and a black Trinidadian who was the only donor culturally exposed to fenugreek. This Trinidadian’s SCFA profiles were consistently higher for fenugreek gum than the other donors. These studies collectively showed fenugreek gum, though viscous could be successfully incorporated into bread and have potential as a functional food and nutraceutical.