Overt and Covert Retrieval Effects on Memory for Repeated and Novel Word-Pairs
This thesis examined the impact of retrieval type, either overt or covert, compared to restudying on the recall of word-pairs in a forward testing paradigm. Participants were presented with a list of word-pairs (A-B) before completing one of three tasks: (1) overt retrieval; (2) covert retrieval; or (3) restudying. Participants then studied a novel list (C-D) or an interference list (A-D) before completing cued-recall of that list. Two experiments were conducted: (1) between-subjects design; (2) mixed design where task varied between-subjects, but item type varied within-subjects. Experiment 1 found that whereas covert retrieval produced forward testing effects for both lists, overt retrieval only trended towards producing an effect for the A-D list. In both experiments A-D items produced more intrusions than C-D items. Both retrieval methods reduced intrusions. The results are discussed in relation to integration theory of the forward testing effects.