An Energy-Restricted, Low Glycemic Index Diet with Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome
This purpose of this thesis was to develop a pilot study to determine if omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D3 will improve body weight loss and improve risk factors for Metabolic Syndrome within a weight loss program. Risk factors include obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Thirty-five men and women between 18 and 65 years of age with risk factors for Metabolic Syndrome were recruited for this study. All participants followed an energy-restricted, low glycemic-index based diet and exercise program for 16 weeks. Half of these participants received omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin D3 supplements. In those that received these supplements, it was seen that their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2/D3 levels and incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid into red blood cell phospholipids improved. The effect of supplementation on changes to body weight and risk factors for Metabolic Syndrome did not reach significance (p<0.05). It was however demonstrated, that an energy-restricted, low glycemic index diet with exercise was effective in inducing weight loss and improving Metabolic Syndrome risk factors with a 50% reduction in participants who had the criteria for diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome by week 16.