Induction and maintenance of anesthesia in hypovolemic dogs
The overall goal of the studies in this thesis was to evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of different anesthetic agents in the hypovolemic dog. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in the hypovolemic dog was determined to be significantly lower than that for normal dogs. The cardiopulmonary effects of induction with isoflurane (I) was compared to intravenous induction using titrated doses of ketamine-diazepam (KD) or propofoldiazepam (PD) in hypovolemic dogs. Injectable techniques provided a more rapid induction of anesthesia and maintained blood pressure in more optimal range immediately following induction of anesthesia compared with isoflurane by mask. A greater safety margin exists with ketamine-diazepam inductions. Doses of the injectable anesthetics required to permit endotracheal intubation were lower than those reported in non-premedicated normovolemic dogs. Practitioners should titrate the dose of the induction agent and be prepared to deliver a lower percentage of isoflurane to maintain anesthesia in hypovolemic dogs.