Characterization of fat structures in ice cream and enhancement of their colloidal interactions in ice creams high in unsaturated fat
Aggregation of fat particles into clusters, that is destabilization, is required in the manufacture of high quality ice cream. Flocculation (protein-held droplets), coalescence (fused droplets) and partial coalescence (fat crystal-held droplets) are all mechanisms responsible for fat destabilization in emulsions. The use of light scattering in treatments with SDS or EDTA revealed the prevalence of partial coalescence in the ice cream structure. This study also sought to enhance the functionality of small fractions of saturated fat in ice creams high in unsaturated fat. To this end, droplets of differing composition were combined in the preparation of ice cream; emulsifier-coated saturated droplets in the presence of protein-stabilized unsaturated droplets. In some cases, this arrangement led to optimum fat structuring, yet without surpassing the melt stability of regular ice creams. Overall, rheological studies pointed to stronger fat structures in novel ice creams when compared to regular ice creams.