EPA and DHA Modulate Macrophage-Derived Inflammation and Subsequent Skeletal Muscle Inflammation
Macrophage-derived inflammation contributes to chronic inflammation in adipose tissue in obesity and is also linked to the development of skeletal muscle (SM) insulin resistance. The long-chain n-3 PUFA have been shown to modulate cytokine secretion from macrophages, though subsequent effects on SM inflammation and function are unknown. A model of macrophage conditioned media (MCM) was used to examine effects of n-3 PUFA on macrophage inflammation and consequent effects on SM cells. Treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with long-chain n-3 PUFA decreased LPS-induced MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression and MCP-1 secreted protein. In turn, MCM from n-3 PUFA-treated macrophages decreased TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression in LPS-stimulated L6 SM cells, but did not affect insulin-stimulated pAkt content. Long-chain n-3 PUFA did not affect gene expression of inflammatory signaling intermediates NF-κB and TLR4. Overall this thesis suggests that long-chain n-3 PUFA are important nutritional strategies for reducing macrophage-derived inflammation, with ensuing benefits in SM inflammation.