Investigations into skeletal muscle mitochondrial metabolism
This thesis is a series of investigations into the regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial metabolism. Novel regulatory mechanisms regarding mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation are continually being identified and alterations in skeletal muscle mitochondrial metabolism have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes (T2DM). Therefore, advancing our basic understanding of mitochondrial regulatory processes is required to provide insight into the progression of T2DM. In study one, the utilization of knockout mice for the putative mitochondrial fatty acid transport protein FAT/CD36, showed that mitochondrial FAT/CD36 plays a functional role in mitochondrial long chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation. Specifically, FAT/CD36 was found to be located on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) upstream of acyl-CoA synthetase. In study two, it was observed that in rat muscle, malonyl-CoA (M-CoA) inhibition kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) display a more physiological IC50 in permeabilzed muscle fibre bundles (PmFB) compared to isolated mitochondria. These data suggest that the cytoskeleton may have a role in regulating M-CoA inhibition. Additionally, a significant effect of LCFA-CoA on M-CoA inhibition kinetics was observed. These data indicate that M-CoA content does not need to decrease to promote an increase in CPT-I flux. Finally, in a model of T2DM (ZDF rat), submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration rates and the content of adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (ANT2) content were depressed compared to lean control animals. Resveratrol treatment in ZDF rats recovered these declines concomitantly with improving insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake and the cellular redox state. A number of novel findings are presented, specifically, 1) a functional role for mitochondrial FAT/CD36 in mitochondrial LCFA oxidation was confirmed and the topology of this protein along the OMM is expanded upon, 2) M-CoA inhibition kinetics of CPT-I were re-evaluated in PmFB and a regulatory role of LCFA-CoA on M-CoA inhibition kinetics is established, and 3) submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration rates and ANT2 content are depressed in the ZDF rat and resveratrol supplementation prevents these decrements.