Electrode Supported Biomimetic Membranes: An Electrochemical and Surface Science Approach for Characterizing Biological Cell Membranes
Planar solid-supported lipid bilayers have been developed as simplified biological membranes to model the physical properties of cell membrane processes. Lipid bilayer membranes supported at conductive metal substrates provide a unique opportunity to investigate the effect of the static electric field on the membrane structure and function. The insights gained from this research can be used to develop novel biosensors and biomedical devices. This review summarizes the recent developments in metal-supported biomimetic membrane systems. It provides an overview of the various models, such as metal-supported monolayers and bilayers, hybrid bilayers, tethered bilayers, and floating bilayers, used to study membrane processes at electrode surfaces, such as metal-supported monolayers and bilayers, hybrid, tethered, and floating bilayers. The paper discusses the recent advancements in these biomimetic models and describes the fundamental knowledge about membrane processes that has been extracted from these different platforms. The potential for the design and improvement of biomedical devices using metal-supported bilayers is also discussed. Metal-supported bilayers allow for the application of a plethora of spectroscopic and surface imaging techniques to obtain information about the voltage-dependent properties of biomolecules at the molecular level. The underlying methodology of these analytical techniques and the structural, chemical and kinetic information extracted are reviewed.