Exploring environmental drivers and potential methods of transmission of Campylobacter in Ontario, Canada using One Health approaches
Enteric illnesses from bacteria such as Campylobacter use the environment as a major reservoir during their transmission between humans and animals. Therefore, this thesis aimed to explore the environmental drivers and transmission pathways of Campylobacter in Ontario from a One Health perspective. The first study explored environmental factors and their effect on Campylobacter in the human and farm populations using Negative Binomial regression and case-crossover analyses. Results showed that campylobacteriosis incidence was affected by temperature, precipitation, and water level and flow. This lead to the second study in which a model of Ontario Campylobacter transmission was proposed to examine the hypothesis that house flies act as a mechanical vector. The model suggested that with the predicted changes to fly dynamics under climate change, we can expect increased campylobacteriosis incidence. The data from both studies provides insight into Campylobacter dynamics and how it may be affected as the global temperature rises.