Systematics of the tribe Taeniapterini (Diptera: Micropezidae, Taeniapterinae) with a review of the genus Paragrallomyia Hendel
This thesis updates the classification of the tribe Taeniapterini by investigating generic relationships and revising some of the generic definitions. First, a revision of the genus Cardiacephala Macquart is presented, with the synonymization of the genus Plocoscelus Enderlein, description of 15 new species (C. acuminata, C. aeruginosa, C. angularis, C. aspera, C. bulla, C. erugata, C. lobulosa, C. nicaraguensis, C. planivertex, C. rotunda, C. spinosa, C. umbra, C. velutinosa, C. venezuelensis and C. vitrata) and a redefinition of the genus, now including 31 species. Chapter 3 is a review of Paragrallomyia Hendel, including a new diagnosis of the genus along with a revision of the P. albibasis complex, resulting in the description of 12 new species (P. aequorea, P. bifurcata, P. brasiliensis, P. caliensis, P. citrina, P. colombiana, P. diminuta, P. ecuadoriensis, P. nodulosa, P. planitibia, P. quadrifurca and P. quaternaria). In this chapter, the genus Taeniaptera is also redefined to include one synapomorphic character of the distal distiphallus. Finally, a phylogeny of the tribe based on molecular data from genes 16s, 28s, CAD, COI and EF-1α is presented. The molecular phylogeny does not support the division of the subfamily Taeniapterinae into two widely used tribes and shows that current concepts of the genera Paragrallomyia Hendel and Taeniaptera Macquart do not reflect phylogeny. The morphology of the group is further discussed against the context of the new molecular evidence.