The Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation on Human Skeletal Muscle Sarcolemmal and Mitochondrial Membrane Fatty Acid Composition and Whole Body Substrate Oxidation
This thesis investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation (2.0 g/day EPA + 1.0 g/day DHA) for 12 weeks on human skeletal muscle sarcolemmal and mitochondrial membrane fatty acid (FA) composition and whole body energy expenditure in young healthy males. Supplementation resulted in significant incorporation of EPA and DHA into sarcolemmal and mitochondrial membranes, with an increase in total unsaturation of mitochondrial membranes. The incorporation profile of the sarcolemma and mitochondria differed, with the mitochondria mimicking changes in whole muscle. There were no changes in the protein content of mitochondrial and selected proteins involved in energy metabolism, except for a significant increase in the long form of UCP3. Despite changes in membrane FA compositions, there were no changes in whole body substrate oxidation at rest or during exercise. These data demonstrate that omega-3 supplementation for 12 weeks altered the FA composition of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial membranes in human skeletal muscle.