Effects of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S Exposure on Memory and Hippocampal Plasticity in Gonadally Intact Adult Male and Female Mice
Bisphenol A (BPA), a well-established endocrine disrupting chemical, has been of particular focus due to its widespread prevalence and adverse effects on human and animal health. In the central nervous system, BPA exposure attenuates learning and memory processes, while also reducing the neuroplastic effects of sex steroids in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Widespread concern led to BPA’s replacement with structurally-related chemicals, such as bisphenol S (BPS). However, whether BPS is actually safer is an open question because its biological effects have yet to be fully explored. Thus, this study sought to determine the impact of BPS on spatial memory in relation to BPA, hippocampal plasticity, and endogenous hormones. We demonstrated that BPS exposure does not impact spatial memory or endogenous hormones. However, task performance was reduced indicating a behavioural effect independent of memory processes. Thus, BPS may not be a safer alternative, at least in the context of cognitive function.