Is post-green revolution agriculture in Punjab, India an example of Karl Polanyi's double movement?
This research aims to determine whether Karl Polanyi’s concept of the double movement, which has been applied to recent social movements around the world, is also relevant to Punjab, India in a post-green revolution agricultural context. This research describes the double movement and characterises each component: market-oriented movement, crisis, and protective counter-movement. Then it assesses whether this relevant to understanding Punjab’s agricultural transformations through a combination of library and field research over three months in Punjab. Findings show that post-green revolution agriculture in Punjab presents a case for the relevance of Karl Polanyi's concept of the double movement, including the market-oriented movement (industrialization of agriculture) and crisis (farming crisis), however evidence of the protective counter-movement has not emerged (institutional support for alternative agriculture). While Punjab's protective counter-movement currently appears relatively weak at the institutional level, some ideological foundations are present. Whether this will collate into a wider movement is uncertain.